How do you express numbers in your writing when do you use figures (digits) and when do you write out the number in words (letters) that is, when do you write. General rules in ordinary writing and mla format spell out numbers which can be expressed as one or two words (one, thirty-six, ninety-nine, one hundred, fifteen hundred, two thousand, three million) use numerals for numbers with more than two words (2½, 101, 137, 1,275) in technical writing and apa format spell out. For more tips on how to treat numbers in writing, see our english rules web page , writing numbers pop quiz assume you are following the rules adhered to by popular at 9:16 am mla requires that all numbers below 100 be spelled out is is exclusive to apa that numbers above 10 may be expressed in arabic digits. Review some of apa style's guidelines on scholarly writing for topics such as abbreviations, active versus passive voice, anthropomorphism, capitalization, numbers, and more. Review the sample paper from the apa, with examples of many apa rules number all pages consecutively, beginning with the title page, in arabic numerals (eg, 4, not iv) in the upper right-hand corner (rule 803, p purdue university online writing lab's apa formatting and style guide (6th ed.
Numbers apa rules for numbers state: use figures for numbers 10 and above ( 12 of the subjects) for numbers above and below 10 grouped for comparison (2 of 16 responses) for numbers representing time, dates, and age (3 years ago, 2 hr 15 min) for numbers denoting a specific place in a series, book, or table ( table 3. Writing style verb tense apa style papers should be written in past or present perfect tense: avoid: mojit and novian's (2013) experiment shows that allowed: mojit and some programs differ in their requirements for a page number and running head, so check your program's guidelines example. Rules for writing numbers and units of measurement vary according to the disciplines involved eg the social sciences, the biological sciences the following rules are mainly taken from the apa (american psychological association) style book and other sources detailing commonly used rules for expressing numbers in. The ap stylebook always spells out percent because the symbol doesn't translate between ap and newspaper computers it also always uses numerals with percent except at the beginning of a sentence both the ama and apa style guides say to use % with numerals in all cases except at the beginning of.
The two styles have very different rules for when to write numbers as words or numerals mla style spells out numbers that can be written in one or two words ( three, fifteen, seventy-six, one thousand, twelve billion) and to use numerals for other numbers (2¾ 584 1,001 25,000,000) apa style, on the. Although usage varies, most people spell out numbers that can be expressed in one or two words and use figures for numbers that are three or more words long note: if you are using a specific citation style, such as mla or apa, consult the style manual for specific formatting instructions words over two. Whether to use a numeral or to spell out a number as a word is a matter of style for general writing, most guides agree that you should use words for the numbers one through nine, but for larger numbers the rules vary wildly from style guide to style guide some say to use words for the numbers one to one. This tip will focus on the basics, so please refer to the manual for more information a general rule: “use numerals to express numbers 10 and above and words to express numbers below 10” (american psychological association ( apa), 2010, p 111) b use numerals to express numbers that are “in the.
Use numerals to express: a numbers 10 and above examples: 12 years old, the 57th trial, 12 cm wide b numbers that precede a unit of measurement examples: 5-mg dose, 363 mm c numbers that represent statistical or mathematical functions, fractional or decimal quantities, percentages, and ratios. Using numbers when using numbers in essays and reports, it is important to decide whether to write the number out in full (two hundred thousand four hundred and six) or to use numerals (200,406) there are some rules to follow to make sure you use numbers in the right way use words if the number can be written in two. Should you write them out in words or leave them as numerals to write numbers properly, you will have to identify potential differences between major style guides (such as mla, apa, and chicago, to name a few) because these guides often outline different rules for using numbers in writing to make it easier, let's use an. General guidelines for writing a paper: apa style you are also encouraged to provide a page or paragraph number check with your instructor to see if page numbers are required note: there is a helpful chart on how to cite references with different numbers of authors on page 177 of the manual.
In-text citations: author/authors apa style has a series of important rules on using author names as part of the author-date system there are additional rules for citing indirect sources, electronic sources, and sources without page numbers. The apa publication manual was written to answers your questions about headings, tables, numbers, quotations, references, punctuation, capitalization, writing style, and general formatting instructions we selected some of the more important items from the apa publication manual and reproduced them here to make it. Apa guidelines for documentations of sources apa style is used primarily in the social the parts of an apa paper are the title page (apa style recommends a title be no more than 12 words) abstract (generally paragraph numbers in internet resources where page numbers are not available check with your teacher to.
When to write out the number: if a number starts a sentence, title or text heading, utilize words, but apa guidelines suggest reword- ing the sentence whenever possible in order to avoid starting the sentence with a number (432) example: ten students earned an a, but 10 others received a b or below.
The basic rules writing percentages reporting results that include numbers writing numbers that are accompanied by measurements writing long numbers consistency may not be obvious this article provides tips that will help you handle this issue within your writing these tips are based on the apa. Numbers style books differ widely in their advice on written and spelled out numbers when in doubt, check the style book which applies in your discipline if you want a cut off rule by number, spell out numbers from one to nine except in graphs, tables, and such use figures for 10 and above as well as in tables, graphs,. Nsu students are expected to follow accurate apa rules when completing writing assignments apa ensures that sources are properly cited, helping to avoid number 1 the cursor should appear before a number type in the following: running head: your paper title the entire string of text should not exceed. If you were told to create your citations in apa format, your paper should be formatted using the apa guidelines as well to create the running head/page header, insert page numbers justified to the right-hand side of the paper (do not put p or pg in front of page numbers) then type “title of your paper” justified to.